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IsraelSouth Africa relations – Wikipedia, the free …

IsraelSouth Africa relations refer to the current and historic relationship between the Republic of South Africa and the State of Israel.

South Africa was among the 33 states that voted in favour of the 1947 UN partition resolution,[1] which led to the creation of the State of Israel, and was one of only four Commonwealth nations to do so. On 24 May 1948,[2] nine days after Israel’s declaration of independence, the South African government of Jan Smuts, a long-time supporter of Zionism, granted de facto recognition to the State of Israel, just two days before his United Party was voted out of office and replaced by the pro-apartheid National Party. South Africa was the seventh nation to recognise the new Jewish state. On 14 May 1949, South Africa granted de jure recognition to the State of Israel.[3]:109111[4]

The impetus for the blossoming relationship between Israel and South Africa was the 1967 Six Day War. Israel’s victory in the war, and subsequent occupation of the Sinai and West Bank, alienated it diplomatically from much of the Third World, and African states. Left-wing movements around the world, including the Black nationalist movements, now began to see it as a colonial state.[5] At the same time, in South Africa, Israel became the object of widespread admiration, particularly among the country’s political and military leadership. The editorial of Die Burger, then the mouthpiece of the South African Nationalist Party declared: “Israel and South Africa are engaged in a struggle for existence… The anti-Western powers have driven Israel and South Africa into a community of interests which had better be utilized than denied.”[5] Within less than a decade, South Africa would be one of Israel’s closest military and economic allies, whilst Israel would occupy the position of South Africa’s closest military ally, and Israel had become the most important foreign arms supplier to the South African Defence Force.[3]:11719

The Israeli interest in South Africa sprang in part from the presence of about 110,000 Jews in South Africa, a figure which included more than 15,000 Israeli citizens.[6]

Diplomatic relations between Israel and South Africa began in 1949, when Israel established a consulate-general in Pretoria,[3]:110 which was raised to the status of a legation in November 1950.[7] However, South Africa had no direct diplomatic representation in Israel (it being represented by the United Kingdom) until South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth in 1961, whereupon it sent a consul-general to Tel Aviv.[8] South African Prime Minister D.F. Malan first visited Israel in 1953.[9]

In the 1950s and 1960s, Israel had prioritized building relations with the newly independent states of sub-Saharan Africa; this, in turn, led it to take a critical stance on the question of apartheid. On October 11, 1961, Israel voted for the General Assembly censure of Eric Louw’s speech defending apartheid.[10][11] Israel became one of a few nations to have strong relations with apartheid South Africa. However in 1963, Israel informed the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid that it had taken steps to comply with the military boycott of apartheid South Africa and had recalled its ambassador to South Africa.[11][12] Israeli leaders had felt a need to publicly distance themselves from the positions of the apartheid government of South Africa during the 1950s and early 1960s, although the governments began to secretly cultivate ties during this period. After 1967, Israel’s attempted alliances with post-colonial African states had, in most assessments, failed. As a final expression of this strategy, in 1971, Israel offered $2,850 in aid to the Organization of African Unity, which was rejected, but not before reportedly irking South Africa.[13]

Most African states had fully broken ties after the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and Israel increased its cultivation of ties with the similarly isolated regime in Pretoria.[14]Ethan A. Nadelmann has claimed that the relationship developed due to the fact that many African countries broke diplomatic ties with Israel during the 1970s following Israeli occupation of Arab land during the ArabIsraeli wars, causing Israel to deepen relations with other isolated countries.[15]

By 1973, an economic and military alliance between Israel and South Africa was in the ascendancy. The military leadership of both countries was convinced that both nations faced a fundamentally similar predicament, fighting for their survival against the common terrorist enemy of the PLO and the ANC.[5]

In 1975, the IsraelSouth Africa Agreement was signed, and increasing economic co-operation between Israel and South Africa was reported, including the construction of a major new railway in Israel, and the building of a desalination plant in South Africa.[16] In April 1976 South African Prime Minister John Vorster was invited to make a state visit, meeting Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.[14][17] Later in 1976, the 5th Conference of Non-Aligned Nations in Colombo, Sri Lanka, adopted a resolution calling for an oil embargo against France and Israel because of their arms sales to South Africa.[16] In 1977, South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha visited Israel to discuss South African issues with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan.

Israeli and South African intelligence czars held regular conferences with each other to share information on enemy weapons and training.[5] The co-ordination between the Israel Defense Forces and the South African Defense Force was unprecedented, with Israeli and South African generals giving each other unfettered access to each other’s battlefields and military tactics, and Israel sharing with South Africa highly classified information about its missions, such as Operation Opera, which had previously only been reserved for the United States.[5]

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Letter: A close look at US-Israel relations

In his letter, (“Israeli Apartheid,” April 10), J. Levinson defends Israel from mounting evidence that Israel has implemented a system of apartheid against Palestinians. This is an important issue for Americans. Apartheid is the most severe level of crime defined in International Law. It is a collection of individual crimes, (mostly war crimes), carried out over a sustained period for the purpose of racial domination and theft of resources. Israels system has been in place for nearly 70 years. The U.S, during that period, has given more aid to Israel than to any other country.

If charges of apartheid prevail, our government could be found complicit and Americans could find themselves paying reparations. I suggest readers check the situation for themselves travel to Israel/Palestine and note the conditions of Jewish nationals vs. Palestinians, or read the International Legal Study, Occupation, Colonialism, Apartheid, by the HSRC of South Africa, or watch online testimony given at the Russell Tribunal Hearings on Palestine held in South Africa, 2011.

After visiting the Holy Land, South African leader Desmond Tutu said of Israels system, God is weeping and that Israels treatment of Palestinians is more severe than that which existed in South Africa. Tutu has publicly endorsed the international Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions Campaign (BDS) as a nonviolent means for civil society to help end Israels apartheid system.

Frances ReMillard

Kamas

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Letter: A close look at US-Israel relations

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Letter: Israeli apartheid?

In his attempt to smear Israel with the accusation of apartheid, George Bisharat (Israeli boycott mirrors attitude of the United Nations, April 6) ignores important facts which demonstrate that Israel is vastly different from South Africa. Palestinian citizens of Israel, known as Israeli Arabs, have equal rights to Jewish citizens of Israel. They serve as elected officials at all levels of Israeli government, as officers in the Israeli military and as judges in Israeli courts. Thousands of Israeli Arabs attend and teach at the very Israeli universities that Bisharat wishes boycotted. If Israel truly had an apartheid system, Israeli Arabs would not have these opportunities.

Moreover, Bisharat evades the issue of terrorism. He protests Israel’s protection of its citizens from terrorism yet ignores the actions of the terrorists themselves. Palestinian terrorists have attacked Israeli civilians countless times, including at a hospital, a hotel, a pizzeria and at several schools. They have used women and children as suicide bombers. These terrorists’ exploits are even touted by supposedly moderate Palestinian groups.

Bisharat’s call for a boycott ignores Palestinian terrorism and does not serve to address the many vital issues that need to be resolved for a lasting peace.

Jason Levinson

Houston

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#BDS: Israeli Apartheid exposed by S. Africa’s Desmond Tutu – Video



#BDS: Israeli Apartheid exposed by S. Africa's Desmond Tutu
Israeli Apartheid exposed by South Africa's Desmond Tutu. Veteran anti-apartheid campaigner Archbishop Desmond Tutu exposes Israeli apartheid against Pales…

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#BDS: Israeli Apartheid exposed by S. Africa’s Desmond Tutu – Video

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Rolling Stones gig in Israel compared to apartheid South Africa

Rolling Stones gig in Israel compared to apartheid South Africa

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Rolling Stones gig in Israel compared to apartheid South Africa

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Israeli Apartheid Week concludes with rally – Video



Israeli Apartheid Week concludes with rally
Israeli Apartheid Week concluded with a rally in Mitchell's Plain on Saturday, 15 March 2014. The event was organized by BDS South Africa and the ANC Youth L…

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Israeli Apartheid: A Beginners Guide Book Review

Mar 24 2014 / 1:02 pm

Israeli Apartheid: A Beginners Guide By Ben White.

By Susan de Muth

(Israeli Apartheid: A Beginners Guide. Ben White, Pluto Press, 144 pages.)

Israeli Apartheid: A Beginners Guide by Ben White is a new, updated and expanded edition of his hard-hitting study of how Israels treatment of the Palestinians resembles the now-extinct South African apartheid system.

Whites premise is simple: if Israel is, indeed, practicing a form of apartheid, why doesnt the international community respond with the same abhorrence it exhibited for the Pretorian prototype? Diplomatic pressure, sanctions and boycotts ultimately saw that system collapse and the establishment of one state for all South Africas citizens, whatever their skin color.

White was prompted to revisit his subject six years on, not only because the situation on the ground is even worse but also in response to an awakening of Western sympathies in regard to the plight of the Palestinians, despite the best efforts of Israels vigorous propaganda machine.

Former American president Jimmy Carter was ahead of the pack with his 2006 book Peace Not Apartheid which brought the debate into the mainstream and challenged the moral integrity of the Hebrew state. Israels 2008-09 Operation Cast Lead onslaught on Gaza which killed 1400 Palestinians, many of them women and children, gave the general public more reason to be concerned. Prominent Israelis, including former prime minister Ehud Olmert, warned that Tel Avivs violent and racist actions were putting the country at risk of becoming a pariah state.

White reminds readers that Israels association with apartheid South Africa was longstanding. Both emerged in 1948, and the South African Jewish community heavily funded the Hebrew state in its infancy. In 1961, then South African prime minister and architect of apartheid, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd, observed that Israel, like South Africa, is an apartheid state. The two states maintained a close political and military relationship, with Israel enabling South Africa to become a nuclear power following a secret 1975 military co-operation agreement signed by Shimon Peres and P.W. Botha.

Whites book achieves the aims it sets out in the preface to highlight the key issues and be readable but does the author convince that Israels treatment of the Palestinians is indeed akin to apartheid?

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Israeli Apartheid Week – Worldnews.com

IAW: BDS-BS #1 Why Do They Single Out Israel?

Dr. Kedar raises the obvious question. If the BDS and like organizations truly have humanitarian goals, why do they single out Israel? The fact is Israel is probably the ONLY country in the Middle East that is NOT an Apartheid State! Syria’s government kills innocent Arabs daily. Where is the BDS outrage? Egyptian civilians have been killed during the ongoing struggle for power. Where is the BDS? Iran hangs its citizens just for being gay. BDS? Anyone? Bueller? Pakistan? Afghanistan? The entire Middle East EXCEPT Israel enacts their own version of Apartheid. Where is the BDS?! —– IAW: BDS-BS #2 Apartheid? Why Do Palestinians Want Israeli ID Cards?! http://youtu.be/TA6Ti30LYno —– Reggae Artist, Ari Lesser has his own grooves on “Israel Apartheid” http://youtu.be/VOZv3SIHOnM —– Watch Dennis Prager’s video addressing the Israel Apartheid accusation that left the self-proclaimed enemies scratching their heads! http://youtu.be/__-WD09sZN0 —- Watch Dr. Mordechai Kedar address the apartheid accusation on Here Is Israel’s DK Presents! http://youtu.be/cG11D8zJpa4 —- HERE IS ISRAEL – CANN The BDS! http://youtu.be/pZvKzvVLEVE —- Muslims misappropriate “Apartheid” to slander Israel – South African MP Kenneth Meshoe: http://youtu.be/v27sNLIEOes —– LIKE and SHARE our FB Page! http://www.facebook.com/HereIsIsrael CONTACT US: hereisisrael@gmail.com

Dr. Kedar hits us with a solid dose of common sense. If Israel is an Apartheid State why do all the Israeli-Arabs want to stay? Why do the Palestinian Arabs want IN? Why are the Arab communities in Israel that may one day be considered part of Palestine, FREAKING OUT?! —– Reggae Artist, Ari Lesser has his own grooves on “Israel Apartheid” http://youtu.be/VOZv3SIHOnM —– Watch Dennis Prager’s video addressing the Israel Apartheid accusation that left the self-proclaimed enemies scratching their heads! http://youtu.be/__-WD09sZN0 —- Catch Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #1: http://youtu.be/PZsKD_bkIpo —– HERE IS ISRAEL – DK Presents: THE Obstacle to Peace… (The Truth UNMASKED) http://youtu.be/xvjEdCDI3KA —– Watch Dr. Mordechai Kedar address the apartheid accusation on Here Is Israel’s DK Presents! http://youtu.be/cG11D8zJpa4 —- HERE IS ISRAEL – CANN The BDS! (News Anchor Joe Lewis CANN’s the BDS-BS!) http://youtu.be/pZvKzvVLEVE —- Muslims misappropriate “Apartheid” to slander Israel – South African MP Kenneth Meshoe: http://youtu.be/v27sNLIEOes —– LIKE and SHARE our FB Page! http://www.facebook.com/HereIsIsrael CONTACT US: hereisisrael@gmail.com

Dr. Kedar removes the gloves during Israeli Apartheid Week. He exposes the countries that are truly guilty of Apartheid. The BDS BS has its sights set on Israel, the democratic state that might very well be the ONLY country in the Middle East that is NOT Guilty of Apartheid! —– Watch IAW: BDS-BS #2 Apartheid? Why Do Palestinians Want Israeli ID Cards?! http://youtu.be/TA6Ti30LYno —– Catch Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #1: http://youtu.be/PZsKD_bkIpo —– Campus Authority News Now! Joe Lewis says CANN the BDS!!! http://youtu.be/pZvKzvVLEVE —– Reggae Artist, Ari Lesser has his own grooves on “Israel Apartheid” http://youtu.be/VOZv3SIHOnM —– Watch Dennis Prager’s video addressing the Israel Apartheid accusation that left the self-proclaimed enemies scratching their heads! http://youtu.be/__-WD09sZN0 —– HERE IS ISRAEL – DK Presents: THE Obstacle to Peace… (The Truth UNMASKED) http://youtu.be/xvjEdCDI3KA —– Watch Dr. Mordechai Kedar address the apartheid accusation on Here Is Israel’s DK Presents! http://youtu.be/cG11D8zJpa4 —- HERE IS ISRAEL – CANN The BDS! (News Anchor Joe Lewis CANN’s the BDS-BS!) http://youtu.be/pZvKzvVLEVE —- Muslims misappropriate “Apartheid” to slander Israel – South African MP Kenneth Meshoe: http://youtu.be/v27sNLIEOes —– LIKE and SHARE our FB Page! http://www.facebook.com/HereIsIsrael CONTACT US: hereisisrael@gmail.com

HII caught up with Adib, a Copt Christian Egyptian Nationalist who has been to Israel and has done business with Israel over the years. When asked if he would ever live in the Middle East again he replied, “I would live in Israel.” —– Here Is Israel brings you Ari Lesser’s, “Israel Apartheid” http://youtu.be/VOZv3SIHOnM —– Don’t Miss “Boycott Israel (THE ORIGINAL)”! The BDS insisted YouTube Age Restrict this video for violent images when they couldn’t get the video banned outright! http://youtu.be/E8bR4EU2eUg —– Stan Goodenough, South African National, explains why Israeli Apartheid is a Sham! http://youtu.be/8Y9RMpufVzs —– Watch Dennis Prager’s video addressing the Israel Apartheid accusation that left the self-proclaimed enemies scratching their heads! http://youtu.be/__-WD09sZN0 —- Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #1: What’s behind the Israeli Apartheid Accusation? http://youtu.be/PZsKD_bkIpo Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #2: Apartheid? Why Do Palestinians Want Israeli ID Cards?! http://youtu.be/TA6Ti30LYno —– Watch Dr. Mordechai Kedar address the apartheid accusation on Here Is Israel’s DK Presents! http://youtu.be/cG11D8zJpa4 —- HERE IS ISRAEL – CANN The BDS! (News Anchor Joe Lewis CANN’s the BDS-BS!) http://youtu.be/pZvKzvVLEVE —- Muslims misappropriate “Apartheid” to slander Israel – South African MP Kenneth Meshoe: http://youtu.be/v27sNLIEOes —– LIKE and SHARE our FB Page! http://www.facebook.com/HereIsIsrael CONTACT US: hereisisrael@gmail.com

Ari Lesser’s Powerful music video should make you ask a few questions: 1) Why is there such a strong call to Boycott Israel when the majority of countries around the world are committing verifiable atrocities that are all but ignored?” 2) What is the true purpose of Israeli Apartheid Week?” 3) Why is their really a call to Boycott Israel?!” If these Pro-Palestinian organizations and functions on college campuses really seek peace in Israel they would support existing projects where Israelis and Palestinians work together. They would back employment opportunities like the amazing one at SodaStream where Israelis and Palestinians work together. Instead, the BDS and IAW call for a boycott of the very company that employs hundreds of Palestinians. The BDS doesn’t support a Two-State Solution. They don’t even recognize the Jewish State. They accuse Israel falsely of Apartheid in order to bring about a worldwide boycott of Israel. Boycotting Israel has only one purpose, THE DESTRUCTION OF ISRAEL. No? Can’t be? This can’t be right? Then where is their outcry against Assad and the Syrian government who are torturing and killing their citizens daily? Why do they allow the Iranian government to hang innocent, gay civilians who are only guilty of not living according to Sharia Law? Why don’t they organize a Boycott against Egypt to help protect the Coptic Christians who are being similarly oppressed and murdered? Where is the BDS? Where are Syrian, Iranian and Egyptian Apartheid Weeks… to name a few? Why is Israel is under the magnifying glass when it is one tiny state (the size of New Jersey) surrounded by 22 Muslim Middle East countries that commit endless crimes of murder and torture of their own women and children in the name of religion? Most of you just want to do the right thing. The right thing requires thinking for yourself. It’s time to do your own digging. (Do not use Wikipedia. Their entries can be updated by just about anyone!) —- Download this song at: http://arithemc.bandcamp.com/track/boycott-israel Connect with Ari on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/arithemc —- Here Is Israel brings you Ari Lesser’s “Israel Apartheid” http://youtu.be/VOZv3SIHOnM —– Don’t Miss “Boycott Israel (THE ORIGINAL)”! The BDS insisted YouTube Age Restrict this video for violent images when they couldn’t get the video banned outright! http://youtu.be/E8bR4EU2eUg —– Stan Goodenough, South African National, explains why Israeli Apartheid is a Sham! http://youtu.be/8Y9RMpufVzs —– Watch Dennis Prager’s video addressing the Israel Apartheid accusation that left the self-proclaimed enemies scratching their heads! http://youtu.be/__-WD09sZN0 —- Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #1: What’s behind the Israeli Apartheid Accusation? http://youtu.be/PZsKD_bkIpo Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #2: Apartheid? Why Do Palestinians Want Israeli ID Cards?! http://youtu.be/TA6Ti30LYno —– Watch Dr. Mordechai Kedar address the apartheid accusation on Here Is Israel’s DK Presents! http://youtu.be/cG11D8zJpa4 —- HERE IS ISRAEL – CANN The BDS! (News Anchor Joe Lewis CANN’s the BDS-BS!) http://youtu.be/pZvKzvVLEVE —- Muslims misappropriate “Apartheid” to slander Israel – South African MP Kenneth Meshoe: http://youtu.be/v27sNLIEOes —– LIKE and SHARE our FB Page! http://www.facebook.com/HereIsIsrael CONTACT US: hereisisrael@gmail.com

Brisbane BDS Campaign anti-apartheid activists target the Seacret Dead Sea Cosmetics stall in the Myer centre in Brisbane City as part of Israeli Apartheid W…

http://apartheidweek.org/ Israeli Apartheid Week (IAW) is an annual international series of events held in cities and campuses across the globe. The aim of I…

Stan Goodenough, a Christian Journalist, was born and raised in South Africa. He has lived in Israel for 25 years. Stan explains what Apartheid in South Africa really was and why the Israeli Apartheid accusation is not based on facts. —– HERE IS ISRAEL – Stan Goodenough: The Israeli Christian Perspective: http://youtu.be/U7VoX26mziQ —– Dr. Kedar hits us with a solid dose of common sense. If Israel is an Apartheid State why do all the Israeli-Arabs want to stay? Why do the Palestinian Arabs want IN? Why are the Arab communities in Israel, that may one day be considered part of Palestine, FREAKING OUT?! —– Reggae Artist, Ari Lesser has his own grooves on “Israel Apartheid” http://youtu.be/VOZv3SIHOnM —– Watch Dennis Prager’s video addressing the Israel Apartheid accusation that left the self-proclaimed enemies scratching their heads! http://youtu.be/__-WD09sZN0 —- Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #1: What’s behind the Israeli Apartheid Accusation? http://youtu.be/PZsKD_bkIpo Israeli Apartheid? Weak! #2: Apartheid? Why Do Palestinians Want Israeli ID Cards?! http://youtu.be/TA6Ti30LYno —– Watch Dr. Mordechai Kedar address the apartheid accusation on Here Is Israel’s DK Presents! http://youtu.be/cG11D8zJpa4 —- HERE IS ISRAEL – CANN The BDS! (News Anchor Joe Lewis CANN’s the BDS-BS!) http://youtu.be/pZvKzvVLEVE —- Muslims misappropriate “Apartheid” to slander Israel – South African MP Kenneth Meshoe: http://youtu.be/v27sNLIEOes —– LIKE and SHARE our FB Page! http://www.facebook.com/HereIsIsrael CONTACT US: hereisisrael@gmail.com

Roger Waters supports those who will publicly declare their disregard of new Israeli anti-boycott law. Please support and promote Palestinian rights by joini…

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South Africans mark Israeli Apartheid Week – Video



South Africans mark Israeli Apartheid Week
Activists, civil groups, and even South Africa's ruling African National Congress party are concluding a week of action on Palestinian solidarity. 'Wrong for…

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South Africans mark Israeli Apartheid Week – Video

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How to combat apartheid Israeli-style | Jews for Justice …

Protest meeting of the United Democratic Front (UDF) in Johannesburg, March 1985. United Nations Photo.

What can we learn from the Israel apartheid analogy?

Although there is room within the legal definition of apartheid for Israel/Palestine, that does not mean it fits the South African model, both in its characteristics and in resistance against it. Only by fully understanding those core differences can Israel/Palestine draw valuable and useful lessons from South Africas anti-apartheid struggle.

By Ran Greenstein, +972 October 04, 2013

In a previous postIf this isnt apartheid, then what is it? [see below] I argued that the Israeli regime between the River and the Sea is a form of apartheid as defined in international law (an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group). This refers to the regime as an integrated whole, ruling both Israel proper and the Occupied Territories. It includes or excludes and allocates or denies rights to different groups in the population in a differentiated manner, based on ethno-religious affiliation.

Having established the apartheid credentials of the Israeli state, we must note it is different in important respects from historical apartheid in South Africa. This difference is related both to the nature of the regime and the possibilities for resistance and change. It is tempting but misleading to assume that family resemblance leads all oppressive regimes in identical directions. Their specific historical legacies shape their current and future prospects in different ways. What are these legacies then and how relevant are they for analysis and activism in Israel/Palestine? To answer that we have to look at the South African experience.

Apartheid in South Africa was the product of a centuries-long history, which saw colonial forces (the Dutch East India Company and the British Empire, Afrikaner and English settlers, Christian missionaries, big landlords and industrial capitalists), collaborate and compete with each other over land and labour resources, and political control over indigenous groups. Both settlers and natives were highly diverse populations, and their encounters spread over a long period and large territory created a multi-layered system of domination, collaboration and resistance. Apartheid was a link in this historical chain, seeking to close loopholes and entrench white domination. During that period, the nature of indigenous resistance also changed, from attempts to retain or regain independence in the 18th and 19th centuries, to a struggle for civil and political equality in the 20th century, based above all on the thorough incorporation of indigenous people into the white-dominated economy and society.

The legal foundation of apartheid in South Africa was a racial distinction between white and black people (further divided into many racial and ethnic sub-groups), rather than a dichotomous ethno-religious distinction. Racial groups were not homogeneous, but internally divided on the basis of language, religion, ethnicity, and political affiliation. And, people forged important links across the color line. For example, white people were divided between English and Afrikaans speakers, and many black people too speak one of these as a mother tongue. Christian churches brought together some white and black believers in some churches (though usually not worshipping together), and separated them from other mixed groups of white and black believers. In contrast, lines of division in Israel/Palestine usually overlap. Potential bases for cross-cutting affiliations anti-Zionist orthodox Jews, Arab Jews, indigenous Palestinian Jewish communities were undermined by the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism in the 20th century. This left no space for people straddling multiple identities.

Under South African apartheid, the central goal of the state was to ensure that black people performed their role as providers of labor, without making disruptive social and political demands. The strategy used to achieve that focused on externalizing them. Although they were physically present in white homes, factories, farms and service industries, they were absent politically and legally as rights-bearing citizens. They were expected to exercise their rights in the rural homelands. Black people employed in the urban areas were supposed to commute regularly between the places where they had jobs but no political rights, and the places where they had families and political rights but no jobs.

This system of migrant labor opened up a contradiction between the ideological and economic imperatives of the apartheid regime. It broke down families and the social order, hampered efforts to create a skilled labor force, reduced productivity, and gave rise to crime and social protest. To control peoples movements, it created a bloated repressive apparatus, which was a constant burden on state resources and capacities. Domestic and industrial employers faced increasing difficulties in meeting labor needs. From an economic asset (for whites) apartheid became a liability. It had to go.

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How to combat apartheid Israeli-style | Jews for Justice …

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