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Globalization – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.[1][2] Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.[3]

Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE.[4][5] In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world’s economies and cultures grew very quickly.

The term globalization has been in increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s.[6] In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.[7] Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization.[8] Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

Humans have interacted over long distances for thousands of years. The overland Silk Road that connected Asia, Africa, and Europe is a good example of the transformative power of translocal exchange that existed in the “Old World”. Philosophy, religion, language, the arts, and other aspects of culture spread and mixed as nations exchanged products and ideas. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europeans made important discoveries in their exploration of the oceans, including the start of transatlantic travel to the “New World” of the Americas. Global movement of people, goods, and ideas expanded significantly in the following centuries. Early in the 19th century, the development of new forms of transportation (such as the steamship and railroads) and telecommunications that “compressed” time and space allowed for increasingly rapid rates of global interchange.[9] In the 20th century, road vehicles, intermodal transport, and airlines made transportation even faster. The advent of electronic communications, most notably mobile phones and the Internet, connected billions of people in new ways by the year 2010.

The term globalization is derived from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of social and economic systems.[10] One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled, Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education.[11] A related term, corporate giants, was coined by Charles Taze Russell in 1897[12] to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. By the 1960s, both terms began to be used as synonyms by economists and other social scientists. It then reached the mainstream press in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, with antecedents dating back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onwards.[13] Due to the complexity of the concept, research projects, articles, and discussions often remain focused on a single aspect of globalization.[1]

Roland Robertson, professor of sociology at University of Aberdeen, an early writer in the field, defined globalization in 1992 as:

…the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole.[14]

Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as:

…all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society.[2]

In The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens uses the following definition:

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Globalization – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Why NFL Players Drive Drunk Even Though They Could Afford A Cab

It seems so stupid. They're making so much money! But closing time for a football player has its own unique pressures, as one former Bronco explains here. As a football player, my life was mostly spent in captivity

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Why NFL Players Drive Drunk Even Though They Could Afford A Cab

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