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Tag Archives: egypt
Palestine (Arabic: Filasn, Falasn, Filisn; Greek: , Palaistin; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. It is sometimes considered to include adjoining territories. The name was used by Ancient Greek writers, and was later used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima and the Umayyad and Abbasid province of Jund Filastin. The region is also known as the Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz-Yisra’el), the Holy Land, the Southern Levant,Cisjordan, and historically has been known by other names including Canaan, Southern Syria and Jerusalem.
Situated at a strategic location between Egypt, Syria and Arabia, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. The region has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, the Sunni Arab Caliphates, the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans, the British and modern Israelis and Palestinians.
Boundaries of the region have changed throughout history, and were last defined in modern times by the Franco-British boundary agreement (1920) and the Transjordan memorandum of 16 September 1922, during the mandate period. Today, the region comprises the State of Israel and Palestinian territories in which the State of Palestine was declared.
The term Peleset (transliterated from hieroglyphs as P-r-s-t) is found in numerous Egyptian documents referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c.1150 BCE during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. The first mention is thought to be in texts of the temple at Medinet Habu, which record a people called the Peleset among the Sea Peoples who invaded Egypt in Ramesses III’s reign, followed later by an inscription on Padiiset’s Statue. The Assyrians called the same region Palashtu or Pilistu, beginning with Adad-nirari III in the Nimrud Slab in c.800 BCE through to emperor Sargon II, in his Annals approximately a century later.
The first clear use of the term Palestine to refer to the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt was in 5th century BC Ancient Greece.Herodotus wrote of a ‘district of Syria, called Palaistin” in The Histories, the first historical work clearly defining the region, which included the Judean mountains and the Jordan Rift Valley. and formed part of the 5th Persian satrapy (). Approximately a century later, Aristotle used a similar definition in Meteorology, writing “Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake () in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink, this would bear out what we have said. They say that this lake is so bitter and salt that no fish live in it and that if you soak clothes in it and shake them it cleans them,” understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea. Later writers such as Polemon, and Pausanias also used the term to refer to the same region. This usage was followed by Roman writers such as Ovid, Tibullus, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder,Statius, as well as Roman-era Greek writers such as Plutarch, Dio Chrysostom and Roman-era Judean writers such as Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Other writers, such as Strabo, a prominent Roman-era Greek geographer, referred to the region as Coele-Syria around 1020 CE, and the Gospel of Matthew’s description of the Flight into Egypt refers to the region as “the land of Israel” [ ], the only time in the New Testament such a reference is made. The term was first used to denote an official province of the Roman Empire in c.135 CE, when the Roman authorities, following the suppression of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, combined Iudaea Province with Galilee and other surrounding cities such as Ashkelon to form “Syria Palaestina” (Syria Palaestina), There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change, although the precise date is not certain, and the interpretation of some scholars that the name change may have been intended “to complete the dissociation with Judaea” is disputed.
The Hebrew name Peleshet ( Plsheth) usually translated as Philistia in English, is used in the Bible more than 250 times. The Greek word Palaistin (, “Palaistine”) is generally accepted to be a translation of the Semitic name for Philistia; however another term land of the Philistieim ( , transliteration from Hebrew ‘Eretz Plishtm, land of the Philistines) was used in the Septuagint, the second century BCE Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, to refer to Philistia. In the Torah / Pentateuch, the term Philistia is used 10 times and its boundaries are undefined. The later Historical books (see Deuteronomistic history) include most of the biblical references, almost 200 of which are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel; in these cases, the word refers to the lands around the several Philistine city-states along the Mediterranean coast, west of the Judean mountains, from Gaza in the south to Ekron in the north.
During the Byzantine period, the entire region (Syria Palestine, Samaria, and the Galilee) was named Palaestina, subdivided into provinces Palaestina I and II. The Byzantines also renamed an area of land including the Negev, Sinai, and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula as Palaestina Salutaris, sometimes called Palaestina III. The Arabic word for Palestine is (commonly transcribed in English as Filistin, Filastin, or Falastin). Moshe Sharon writes that when the Arabs took over Greater Syria in the 7th century, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration before them, generally continued to be used. Hence, he traces the emergence of the Arabic form Filastin to this adoption, with Arabic inflection, of Roman and Hebrew (Semitic) names. Jacob Lassner and Selwyn Ilan Troen offer a different view, writing that Jund Filastin, the full name for the administrative province under the rule of the Arab caliphates, was traced by Muslim geographers back to the Philistines of the Bible. The use of the name “Palestine” in English became more common after the European renaissance. It was officially revived by the British after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and applied to the territory that was placed under The Palestine Mandate.
Some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of this land include Canaan, Greater Israel, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Judea,Israel, “Israel HaShlema”, Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael or Ha’aretz),Zion, Retenu (Ancient Egyptian), Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palestina.
Situated at a strategic location between Egypt, Syria and Arabia, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. The region has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, the Sunni Arab Caliphates, the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans, the British and modern Israelis and Palestinians. Modern archaeologists and historians of the region refer to their field of study as Syro-Palestinian archaeology.
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Inhabited since at least the 15th century B.C., Gaza has been dominated by many different peoples and empires throughout its history; it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in the early 16th century. Gaza fell to British forces during World War I, becoming a part of the British Mandate of Palestine. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Egypt administered the newly formed Gaza Strip; it was captured by Israel in the Six-Day War in 1967. Under a series of agreements signed between 1994 and 1999, Israel transferred to the Palestinian Authority (PA) security and civilian responsibility for many Palestinian-populated areas of the Gaza Strip as well as the West Bank. Negotiations to determine the permanent status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip stalled after the outbreak of an intifada in mid- 2000. In early 2003, the “Quartet” of the US, EU, UN, and Russia, presented a roadmap to a final peace settlement by 2005, calling for two states – Israel and a democratic Palestine. Following Palestinian leader Yasir ARAFAT’s death in late 2004 and the subsequent election of Mahmud ABBAS (head of the Fatah political party) as the PA president, Israel and the PA agreed to move the peace process forward. Israel in late 2005 unilaterally withdrew all of its settlers and soldiers and dismantled its military facilities in the Gaza Strip, but continues to control maritime, airspace, and other access. In early 2006, the Islamic Resistance Movement, HAMAS, won the Palestinian Legislative Council election and took control of the PA government. Attempts to form a unity government between Fatah and HAMAS failed, and violent clashes between Fatah and HAMAS supporters ensued, culminating in HAMAS’s violent seizure of all military and governmental institutions in the Gaza Strip in June 2007. Fatah and HAMAS in early 2011 agreed to reunify the Gaza Strip and West Bank, but the factions have struggled to implement details on governance and security. Brief periods of increased violence between Israel and Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip in 2007-08 and again in 2012, both led to Egyptian-brokered truces. The status quo remains with HAMAS in control of the Gaza Strip and the PA governing the West Bank.
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Israel
31 25 N, 34 20 E
total: 360 sq km
land: 360 sq km
water: 0 sq km
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
total: 62 km
border countries: Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km
From New World Encyclopedia
The Gaza Strip (Arabic:Qita’ Ghazzah; Hebrew:Retzu’at ‘Azza) is a narrow coastal strip of land along the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Israel, just northeast of the Sinai Peninsula. It is considered to be part of the “Cradle of Humanity,” with a long and full history.
Following the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were forced into refugee camps, with most of the refugees from the southern part of Israel ending up in Gaza. This small area harbors a large refugee community that is a hotbed of militarism as the community suffers from high unemployment and limited security and is riven with factions struggling for sovereignty.
As of 2008, Gaza is neither a state nor a nation. It is at best a community without a functioning economic base or credible political structure. Decades of instability and uncertain political status while being a welfare client of the United Nations set the stage for further collapse when Israel responded to the Intifada of 1990 by imposing constraints on Gazans exiting or entering Gaza, on Gazan supplies of medicine, fuel, and other basic goods, on Gazans transporting crops to export markets, and on their use of electric lights. The travel constraints alone have left many Gazans without a functioning economic base because they have lost access to employment opportunities in Israel.
Present day Gaza feels to many as a prison of sorts. Israel controls the Gaza strip’s airspace and offshore maritime access. Due to the continuing conflict with Israel, its 1.4 million inhabitants on 130 square miles are unable to enter neighboring Israel or Egypt, and there is little local economic activity in this potentially rich area to alleviate the widespread poverty.
The territory takes its name from Gaza, its main city. The Gaza Strip has a 32-mile (51km) border with Israel, a seven-mile (11km) border with Egypt, and an area of 139 square miles (360km), slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC.
The terrain is flat or rolling, with dunes near the coast. The highest point is Abu ‘Awdah ([Joz Abu 'Auda]]), at 344 feet (105 meters) above sea level.
The Gush Katif bloc of Israeli localities used to exist on the sand dunes adjacent to Rafah and Khan Yunis, along the southwestern edge of the 25-mile (40km) Mediterranean coastline. A few months after Israel’s unilateral disengagement plan in December 2005, a controversial buffer zone was created on the northern border with Israel. Part of it reaches 1.5-mile (2.5km) into the Palestinian Authority controlled territory, on roughly the area of the former northern Israeli localities, an area used to launch Qassam rockets into Israel.
The Gaza Strip has a temperate climate, with mild winters, and dry, hot summers subject to drought. January is the coldest month with average temperatures ranging from 43F to 59F (6C to 15C) and July and August are the hottest months at 72F to 91F (22C to 33C) on average.
Natural resources include arable land (about a third of the strip is irrigated), and recently discovered natural gas.
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Gaza’s Hamas prime minister praises shooting that killed Israeli in the West Bank
The prime minister of the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip has praised an attack that killed an Israeli in the West Bank.Speaking Tuesday in Gaza, Ismail Haniyeh said the shooting a day earlier outside the city of Hebron “brought back life to the path of resistance.” He saluted “Hebron and the heroes of Hebron.”No one has claimed responsibility for the attack, which also wounded the slain man’s wife and their son as they were en route to a seder meal to mark the Jewish holiday of Passover.Hamas and Israel are bitter enemies. The sides have engaged in frequent fighting since the Islamic militant group seized power in Gaza in 2007. Israel, along with Egypt, also has imposed a tight blockade on Gaza since Hamas’ takeover of the seaside strip….
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The Pew Research Centre, a Washington-based thinktank known for its worldwide polls, asked people in 40 countries about behaviour they considered morally unacceptable, morally acceptable, or not a moral issue. Their responses to eight themes extramarital affairs, gambling, homosexuality, abortion, premarital sex, alcohol, divorce and contraception have now been displayed in a revealing interactive presentation.
The Pew Research Centre stated: African and predominantly Muslim countries tend to find most of these activities morally unacceptable, while in advanced economies, such as those in Western Europe, Japan, and North America, people tend to be more accepting or to not consider these moral issues at all.
But there were notable divergences within regions. Ugandas controversial legal reforms penalising homosexuality appears to be rooted in the fact that 93% of Ugandans consider the sexual orientation to be unacceptable. But the Senegalese are markedly more tolerant, as over a quarter of those polled in the west African country did not consider the question morally relevant.
Within Europe, the research confirmed certain national stereotypes. In France, a majority of people did not consider it morally unacceptable for married people to have an affair, attesting to the French penchant for taking mistresses and extramarital lovers. Against 47% of the French who consider such affairs unacceptable, prudish Brits disapproved to the tune of 76%.
Although countries of the global south were the most conservative, notable exceptions include the fact that the Muslim nations of Egypt and Jordan have more liberal views on divorce than neighbouring Israel and even the United States, Canada and Britain. Only 6-7% of Egyptians and Jordanians also consider contraception unacceptable, against 17% of Israelis and Poles.
The latter issue has clearly won the moral battle, with a majority of those polled in favour of family planning. Only in Pakistan, Nigeria and Ghana did a majority consider contraception unacceptable.
Michael Lipka, assistant editor at the Pew Research Centers Religion & Public Life Project, drew attention to the fact that Africans were most opposed to contraception, while being most blighted by HIV/AIDS, a virus spread by unprotected sex.
JERUSALEM The prime minister of the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip has praised an attack that killed an Israeli in the West Bank.
Speaking Tuesday in Gaza, Ismail Haniyeh said the shooting a day earlier outside the city of Hebron “brought back life to the path of resistance.” He saluted “Hebron and the heroes of Hebron.”
No one has claimed responsibility for the attack, which also wounded the slain man’s wife and their son as they were en route to a seder meal to mark the Jewish holiday of Passover.
Hamas and Israel are bitter enemies. The sides have engaged in frequent fighting since the Islamic militant group seized power in Gaza in 2007. Israel, along with Egypt, also has imposed a tight blockade on Gaza since Hamas’ takeover of the seaside strip.
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Apr 12 2014 Kreata Global expands ME operations ,Khaleej Times (MENAFN – Khaleej Times) Kreata global a digital activation company has shifted its headquarters to single business tower sheikh zayed road dubai.
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Orthodox men get their cooking pots dipped into hot water in preparation for Passover, in Efrat, a Jewish settlement in the West Bank. (Gershon Elinson/Flash 90/JTA)
When New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie apologized toRepublican donor Sheldon Adelson for using the term occupied territories to refer to the West Bank, critics pounced. Jon Stewart of The Daily Showridiculed the apology, insisting that the phrase is widely accepted and accurate.
While the term is indeed widely used to describe Israels relationship to the West Bank areas of Judea and Samaria, that doesnt make it accurate. Indeed, the use of the term occupied territories in this context is flawed legally, historically and factually.[
[Related:The West Bank is under military occupation, and thats a fact]
The phrase does not accurately reflect the status of the areas that it purports to describe. Yet it has regrettably become lingua franca in contemporary international and U.N. parlance, including for senior members of the U.S. administration and European leaders.
The expressions occupied territory and occupied Palestinian territory are political terms frequently used in nonbinding political resolutions, principally in the U.N. General Assembly, representing nothing more than the political viewpoint of the majority of states voting in favor of such resolutions.
These political pronouncements have never constituted, nor should they constitute, an authority for any determination that the territories are Palestinian or that they are occupied. Such determinations would appear to be based on incorrect and partisan readings of the factual situation and of the relevant international legal documentation.
In the 1967 Six Day War Israel took control of Samaria, Judea, eastern Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip. These areas had previously been seized by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Egypt and held by them since the 1948 war, initiated by them against Israel.
International law relates to occupation of foreign territory from a prior legitimate sovereign, and these areas never constituted the legitimate sovereign territory of Jordan or Egypt. Hence, the accepted international law definition of occupation of territory cannot be attributed to Israels status in these areas.
The unique historic and legal nature of these territories, in which there has existed a basic indigenous Jewish presence since at least 1500 BCE, long before the arrival of Islam in the 7th-century CE, with concomitant Jewish historic rights, inevitably renders these territories as sui generis, or having a unique legal status. This status runs counter to any attempt to use standard definitions such as occupied territories in order to designate or describe these areas.
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Today marks five years since the Israeli military launched missile and ground attacks on Gaza, which Israel named Operation Cast Lead. According to the UN, 1,383 Palestinians died as a result, including 333 children. And what of the survivors? For the 1.7 million living in the tiny Gaza Strip, life has become increasingly desperate because of Israel's continuing blockade, backed by Egypt and …
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The Suez Canel – Man Made Canel Connecting the Mediteerian to the Red Sea
The Suez Canal (Arabic: Qant al-Swais) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened …